District and Sessions Courts

District and Sessions Courts in every district in India exercise its jurisdiction over civil and criminal matters respectively arising in the district. The District Court derives its jurisdiction in civil matters primarily from the code of civil procedure. The District Court is also a Court of Sessions when it exercises its jurisdiction on criminal matters under Code of Criminal procedure.

The district court has appellate jurisdiction over all subordinate courts situated in the district on both civil and criminal matters. Subordinate courts, on the civil side (in ascending order) are, Junior Civil Judge Court, Principal Junior Civil Judge Court, Senior Civil Judge Court (also called sub-court). Subordinate courts, on the criminal side (in ascending order) are, Second Class Judicial (or Metropolitan) Magistrate Court, First Class Judicial (or Metropolitan) Magistrate Court and Chief Judicial (or Metropolitan) Magistrate Court. Certain matters on criminal side or civil side cannot be tried by a lesser court than a district court. This gives the District Court original jurisdiction in such matters.

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